Print and Electronic References – An Overview

Ця сторінка також доступна українською.


A sample of print book references useful for cemetery projects.

Text, image, and video references are important resources for the conception, development, and practice of Jewish cemetery projects in western Ukraine. Most projects are conducted by volunteer activists without prior education and experience in the field, so access to information before and during project work is essential. To complement the general and specific guidelines which form the core of this website, the case studies which serve as examples of past projects in the region and beyond, the list of recognized experts in various aspects of cemetery preservation work, and the detailed tools and methods descriptions in this resource section, these text and web references pages list both academic and practical books, as well as articles, reports, web pages, and videos which can inform all phases of cemetery project activity from conceptual design through implementation and sustaining. Many of the references are in electronic form, for ease of access from anywhere in the world, and links are provided to descriptions or the actual references where available. Other references may be purchased from online booksellers, and in some regions may be found in libraries.

The reference categories below align with the outline of project phases defined in the guide section of this website. A few of the category pages are quite long, with dozens of listed references; each of the pages begins with a “key references” section which highlights and briefly describes the references we have found particularly detailed and/or comprehensive. There are more than 250 references listed and linked on these pages; although some references are applicable to more than one aspect of cemetery projects, to avoid redundancy each unique reference is listed on only one category page. Users of this website should consider how some topics (especially project concepts, and the materials of grave markers, monuments, and fences) may overlap several categories, and review more than one of the category pages even for narrowly-focused projects.

The majority of references listed on these pages are written or spoken in English language. This reflects both the relative availability of English-language resources vs. those in Ukrainian and other languages, and search bias resulting from our different language skills. We welcome suggestions of additional applicable references, especially those in Ukrainian language. To aid in searches for references beyond the lists here, this page concludes with a list of links to significant sources for information relevant to cemetery preservation.

Reference Categories

Each category below links to a page with relevant references in print and electronic formats:

Project Concepts

Site Surveys and Research

Site Clearing, Cleaning, and Reconditioning

Landscape Planning, Development, and Care

Stone Conservation, Documentation, and Care

Memorial Design, Development, and Care

Directional and Information Signage

Fences, Walls, and Gates

Sustainability Planning

Project Support and Funding


Significant Internet Resources for Cemetery Preservation

Past research to support cemetery projects in western Ukraine has resulted in a large and growing list of print and electronic references as organized in the lists linked above, but this compilation of resources is undoubtedly incomplete, and new resources are published each year. Frequent review of the primary sources for many of the references listed above is likely to further aid new cemetery projects. The following institutions provide significant resources applicable to cemetery preservation, and/or relevant historical research which informs cultural heritage management in western Ukraine and beyond, in the form of online libraries, databases, project reports and data, and in some cases, access to experts for technical guidance. The key resources are listed here in no specific order:

US National Center for Preservation Technology and Training (NCPTT)
A project of the US Department of the Interior managed by the National Park Service (which also manages many American national historical monuments), the NCPTT is a research, technology, and training organization devoted to technical issues in heritage preservation. The Center conducts research and testing in its own laboratories, provides training around the U.S., and supports research and training projects at universities and nonprofits. NCPTT aims to advance current preservation practice by exploring developing science and technology in other fields and applying them to issues in cultural resources management. The NCPTT website provides free downloadable research reports from the Center’s hundreds of prior research grants, and provides technical expertise on a variety of specialized scientific interests. NCPTT core disciplines applicable to cemetery preservation include engineering, historic landscapes, and materials conservation.

Getty Conservation Institute (GCI)
A program of the J. Paul Getty Trust and working out of the Getty Center in Los Angeles, GCI aims to advance conservation practice in the visual arts and international cultural heritage. Although a major focus for the institute is on museum collections, another core work area is built heritage, with significant overlap to issues, science, and methods in cemetery preservation. GCI’s third focus is education and dissemination, which creates a deep publications resource, including nearly 200 free PDF publications on conservation-specific materials science, strategies for sustainable heritage care, and project reports.

International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS)
Based in Paris, ICOMOS is a membership association for qualified professionals which promotes the conservation and protection of world cultural heritage sites, and advises UNESCO’s World Heritage Committee. In addition to ongoing work monitoring global heritage monuments and sites, ICOMOS also sponsors scientific exchanges, conventions, and standards, and maintains an online self-publishing Open Archive of scientific documentation and a publications list of downloadable Council thematic reports and documents.

University of Pennsylvania, Stuart Weitzman School of Design, Center for Architectural Conservation (CAC)
A scientific research center, laboratory, and training facility focused on architectural conservation and building technology, with a special emphasis on materials, and significant overlap to cemeteries and monuments preservation through studies of stone decay. Sponsors projects in the US and around the world, and publishes reports on research process and results, including a number of cemetery survey, analysis, conservation, and documentation projects. Also a member institution of the Digital Commons Network and its Historic Preservation and Conservation Commons.

Cemetery Conservators for United Standards
A US non-profit membership organization of cemetery conservators including both professionals and trained volunteers. Provides free web-based information focused on “do no harm” methods for cleaning, repairing, and resetting gravestones and other cemetery markers, with detailed text, images, and video, incorporating advice on materials and tools to sensitively maintain burial sites. Also includes a detailed page on reading headstones, with their advice for and against several popular methods. Some of the headstone materials and cleaning supplies are specific to US cemeteries and manufacturers, but much of the advice and methods are also applicable in western Ukraine.

Chicora Foundation
A defunct former non-profit based in the southeastern US, the Chicora Foundation focused on regional cultural heritage concerns including archaeology and cemetery preservation through projects and education. Although the foundation is no longer active, the website remains viable and still retains a number of cemetery-related publications plus links to other articles from allied organizations. Navigating the old website can be challenging, but one can find advice on gravestone cleaning, resetting, and materials, plus helpful suggestions for assessing the condition of a cemetery and its markers. The idle Facebook page for the foundation retains many additional photos of grave marker repairs and cleaning projects as useful examples. If the website disappears in the future, earlier versions will remain accessible on the Internet Archive.

ESJF European Jewish Cemeteries Initiative
Created and funded as a Germany-based program with field offices in Kyiv in 2015, ESJF works to define, protect, and preserve Jewish cemeteries in central and eastern Europe, through projects which survey the sites and construct cemetery walls with locking gates, along with an initial clearing and cleaning of the cemetery grounds. To date in western Ukraine, more than 75 cemeteries have been fenced, and many hundreds more have been surveyed and documented. Partnering with government and NGO organizations, ESJF is also developing efficient methods and materials for site work which respects Halakhic law, scientific approaches, local regulations, and cemetery neighbors. ESJF maintains an online map of its project sites, and their newer survey project is a primary source of cemetery location data for our burial sites compilation covering western Ukraine.

Yahad – In Unum
A French non-profit organization established to research the killing sites and mass graves of Jewish and other minority victims of Nazi mobile murder groups in what is now Ukraine, Poland, Belarus, Russia, and Moldova. Uses archival research and field ballistic evidence together with local eyewitness interviews to recover history and locate human remains. Presents findings in traveling exhibitions and the organization website (including an interactive map), and develops public education resources to open dialogue on the difficult past. To date in western Ukraine, Yahad – In Unum has surveyed more than 250 sites of mass killing and burial; their research is a primary source of mass grave location data for our burial sites compilation covering western Ukraine.

Association for Gravestone Studies
A North American non-profit working to “foster appreciation of the cultural significance of gravestones and burial grounds through their study and preservation.” Publishes an annual journal (“Markers”; past issues are available online) and maintains an online knowledge center on preservation methods.

Center for Urban History of East Central Europe
“The Center” in Lviv, Ukraine is a private non-profit institution of historical scholarship engaged in academic and cultural activities. Their website is a growing resource for both data and analysis, and a portal for historical and educational projects and publications developed by Center staff and in collaboration with other institutes and individual researchers in Lviv, in greater Ukraine, and across Europe. Also onsite in their Lviv office is an excellent library with books (many in English and Ukrainian) and other media on histories of the regions of East Central Europe (especially Galicia and Ukraine), managing material and intangible cultural heritage, and places of public memory. The Center’s website is fully functional in both Ukrainian and English.

Jewish Heritage Europe
A project of the Rothschild Foundation (Hanadiv) Europe (RFHE), Jewish Heritage Europe is a web portal to news and information about heritage issues and projects across Europe, with both thematic and political/geographic perspectives. Key sections relevant to the focus of this website are the large Cemeteries subsection and the country section on Ukraine. The breadth of the site provides many examples of other European Jewish heritage issues and projects to those found in western Ukraine.
A one-man blog and information website focused on gravestone conservation, with majority examples and techniques applicable to North America but with general methods and some materials useful anywhere. A lengthy, useful glossary of terms plus a FAQ and a page of links to other organizations, suppliers, training, and reference cemeteries. Especially useful are the numerous how-to articles with detailed issues and strategies. The website has not been updated since 2013, but the archived info is a helpful reference.

US Forest Service
A government land and wildlife management organization which also produces free scientific reports and guides for a number of planning and practical tasks applicable in some cemeteries, including care and maintenance of trees plus working with other plants and animals.

Internet Archive
A non-profit free online library of digitized books and other media in the public domain, with additional links to participating digital libraries which loan books for online borrowing by users. Particularly useful for free access and downloading of technical texts (e.g. on surveying and construction) where the core technology was stable in the pre-copyright era.