References: Landscape Planning, Development, and Care

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Groomed grass on the grounds of the Jewish cemetery and mass grave of Pidhaitsi (Ternopil oblast). Photo © RJH.

This page lists print and electronic references which can aid the planning and development of intentional landscapes in Jewish cemeteries in western Ukraine, and the management and conservation of those landscapes after project realization. The guidance provided in the references covers original landscape designs, as well as remedial changes to existing landscapes to align them with design concepts, but not the clearing of unwanted vegetation (which is addressed in references on a separate page of this website).

The references listed here range from introductory and academic texts in the field of landscape architecture, to extended essays on design approaches by professional architects who have designed memorial gardens and urban landscapes, to catalogs of common regional flora and fauna, to heritage landscape management principles, and to planting, pruning, and caring for desired plants and trees in an ongoing burial site management process.

A few of the listed references are highlighted with brief summaries in the first section below, “key references”. Other useful resources on this subject may be found in the sections on regional and international experts, and on technical tools, methods, and data. Except where noted otherwise, all references listed here are in English.

Key References

Guide to Landscape Design; David Beaulieu; The Spruce, 2019.
A brief and basic introduction to the key terms and principles of landscape design. Aimed at non-professionals for application to residential gardens or urban spaces, the article can serve as an entry point for thinking about managing cemetery landscapes.

Planting: A New Perspective; Piet Oudolf and Noel Kingsbury; Timber Press / Workman, 3rd edition, 2013.
The landscape philosophy and practice of Piet Oudolf, architect of numerous public and private land spaces around the world including the Gardens of Remembrance at Battery Park in New York City which commemorates the victims of 9/11. Emphasizing native grasses and flowering perennials which change color and structure through the seasons to hold year-round visual interest with reduced active maintenance, the design approaches are especially applicable in spaces where there are few or no residual hard features (e.g. headstones, grave covers, and other memorial monuments).

The Antidote to Excess; Jacky Bowring; Landscape Architecture Magazine, April 2019, pp.150-158. Free download available.
Opening as a book review of Marc Treib’s “Doing Almost Nothing: The Landscapes of Georges Descombes” (listed below), the essay then speaks further on the theme and practice of landscape work which is restrained, engaging, and attending, which through “a series of actions, minimal individually, collectively produce a landscape emotional and powerful.” Directly applicable to the decaying landscapes of Jewish cemeteries and mass graves in western Ukraine, there is great value here in the review of Descombes’ work, which frequently begins with “the determination to reveal what already occupied the site, using only a minimum of means”.

Cemeteries and Memorials (Realized Projects); Landezine Landscape Architecture Platform, web page, undated.
A visual reference to recent projects with explanatory texts about the purpose and concepts at each site, curated by the editors of the website, with links to the contemporary landscape designers who created the works. The search results are continuously updated as new projects are submitted for open review, the tool already displays more than 40 burial and memorial sites, many of them associated with war or mass crimes.

Printed and Electronic Books

Journal Articles, Reports, and Web Pages