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This page lists print and electronic references which can aid the planning and development of intentional landscapes in Jewish cemeteries in western Ukraine, and the management and conservation of those landscapes after project realization. The guidance provided in the references covers original landscape designs, as well as remedial changes to existing landscapes to align them with design concepts, but not the clearing of unwanted vegetation (which is addressed in references on a separate page of this website).
The references listed here range from introductory and academic texts in the field of landscape architecture, to extended essays on design approaches by professional architects who have designed memorial gardens and urban landscapes, to catalogs of common regional flora and fauna, to heritage landscape management principles, and to planting, pruning, and caring for desired plants and trees in an ongoing burial site management process.
A few of the listed references are highlighted with brief summaries in the first section below, “key references”. Other useful resources on this subject may be found in the sections on regional and international experts, and on technical tools, methods, and data. Except where noted otherwise, all references listed here are in English.
Guide to Landscape Design; David Beaulieu; The Spruce, 2019.
A brief and basic introduction to the key terms and principles of landscape design. Aimed at non-professionals for application to residential gardens or urban spaces, the article can serve as an entry point for thinking about managing cemetery landscapes.
Planting: A New Perspective; Piet Oudolf and Noel Kingsbury; Timber Press / Workman, 3rd edition, 2013.
The landscape philosophy and practice of Piet Oudolf, architect of numerous public and private land spaces around the world including the Gardens of Remembrance at Battery Park in New York City which commemorates the victims of 9/11. Emphasizing native grasses and flowering perennials which change color and structure through the seasons to hold year-round visual interest with reduced active maintenance, the design approaches are especially applicable in spaces where there are few or no residual hard features (e.g. headstones, grave covers, and other memorial monuments).
The Antidote to Excess; Jacky Bowring; Landscape Architecture Magazine, April 2019, pp.150-158. Free download available.
Opening as a book review of Marc Treib’s “Doing Almost Nothing: The Landscapes of Georges Descombes” (listed below), the essay then speaks further on the theme and practice of landscape work which is restrained, engaging, and attending, which through “a series of actions, minimal individually, collectively produce a landscape emotional and powerful.” Directly applicable to the decaying landscapes of Jewish cemeteries and mass graves in western Ukraine, there is great value here in the review of Descombes’ work, which frequently begins with “the determination to reveal what already occupied the site, using only a minimum of means”.
Cemeteries and Memorials (Realized Projects); Landezine Landscape Architecture Platform, web page, undated.
A visual reference to recent projects with explanatory texts about the purpose and concepts at each site, curated by the editors of the website, with links to the contemporary landscape designers who created the works. The search results are continuously updated as new projects are submitted for open review, the tool already displays more than 40 burial and memorial sites, many of them associated with war or mass crimes.
Printed and Electronic Books
- Landscape Architecture: An Introduction; Robert Holden and Jamie Liversedge; Laurence King Publishing, 2014.
- Foundations of Landscape Architecture: Integrating Form and Space Using the Language of Site Design; Norman K. Booth; Wiley, 2011.
- Theory in Landscape Architecture: A Reader; Simon Swaffield, ed.; University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002.
- Doing Almost Nothing: The Landscapes of Georges Descombes; Marc Treib; ORO Editions, 2019.
- Austere Gardens: Thoughts on Landscape, Restraint, & Attending; Marc Treib; ORO Editions, 2016.
- Overgrown: Practices between Landscape Architecture and Gardening; Julian Raxworthy; The MIT Press, 2018.
- Rhetoric, Remembrance, and Visual Form: Sighting Memory; Anne Teresa Demo and Bradford Vivian, eds.; Routledge, 2012.
- Settings and Stray Paths: Writings on Landscapes and Gardens; Marc Treib; Routledge, 2005.
- Planting: A New Perspective; Piet Oudolf and Noel Kingsbury; Timber Press / Workman, 3rd edition, 2013.
- Meaning in Landscape Architecture and Gardens; Marc Treib, ed.; Routledge, 2011.
- European Landscape Architecture: Best Practice in Detailing; Ian Thompson, Torben Dam, and Jens Balsby Nielsen, eds.; Routledge, 2007.
- Green Infrastructure: Incorporating Plants and Enhancing Biodiversity in Buildings and Urban Environments; John W. Dover; Routledge, 2015.
- Spatial Recall: Memory in Architecture and Landscape; Marc Treib, ed.; Routledge, 2013.
- Therapeutic Gardens: Design for Healing Spaces; Daniel Winterbottom and Amy Wagenfeld; Workman Publishing, 2015.
- Melancholy and the Landscape: Locating Sadness, Memory and Reflection in the Landscape; Jacky Bowring; Routledge, 2016.
- Representing Landscape Architecture; Marc Treib, ed.; Taylor & Francis, 2008.
- Form and Fabric in Landscape Architecture: A Visual Introduction; Catherine Dee; Taylor & Francis, 2001.
Journal Articles, Reports, and Web Pages
- Guide to Landscape Design; David Beaulieu; The Spruce, 2019.
- Landscape Design for Beginners; David Beaulieu; The Spruce, 2018.
- The Antidote to Excess; Jacky Bowring; Landscape Architecture Magazine, April 2019, pp.150-158. Free download available.
- Cemeteries and Memorials (Realized Projects); Landezine Landscape Architecture Platform, web page, undated.
- Commemorative Landscape; The Cultural Landscape Foundation, web database, undated.
- Sustainable Design Resources: Sustainability Toolkits for Economic, Environmental, and Social Models; American Society of Landscape Architects, web pages, undated.
- Smart Policies for a Changing Climate; American Society of Landscape Architects, 2018. Free download available.
- Geosynthetics in geoenvironmental engineering; Werner W Müller and Fokke Saathoff; Science and Technology of Advanced Materials; Vol. 16 No. 3, May 2018. Free download available. See also this Wikipedia page.
- Invasive Alien Species of Union Concern; European Commission, brochure, 2017.
- Adoption of the first list of invasive alien species of Union concern, Q&A; European Commission, white paper, 2016.
- Invasive Alien Species; Regulation and Resources; European Commission, web site, 2019.
- Consolidated List of Species of Union Concern (Animals and Plants); Great Britain Non-native Species Secretariat, docx, 2019.
- Species and Climate Change; International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN); issues brief, 2019. Free download available.
- Invasive alien species and climate change; International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN); issues brief, 2017. Free download available.
- Other options for weed control: Technical Information Note 11/2019; Landscape Institute, 2019. Free download available.
- Cemetery Lawn Maintenance; Chicora Foundation; web page, undated.
- What’s that bug? How to identify any plant or animal with your smartphone; CBC News; web page, 18Jul2019.
- Successfully Transmitting the Spirituality of a Holy Place Through Landscape Design: The Terraced Gardens of the Shrine of the Báb in Haifa, Israel; Erik Anderson; Proceedings of the 16th ICOMOS General Assembly and International Symposium, 2008. Free download available.
- How to Prune Trees (NA-FR-01-95); Peter J. Bedker, Joseph G. O’Brien, and Manfred E. Mielke; USDA Forest Service, 2012.
- A First Look at Tree Decay: An Introduction to How Injury and Decay Affect Trees; Kevin T. Smith and Walter C. Shortle; USDA Forest Service, 1998.
- Tree Owner’s Manual (NA–FR–01–10); Jill R. Johnson, Gary R. Johnson, Maureen H. McDonough, Lisa L. Burban, Janette K. Monear; USDA Forest Service, 2010.
- Mourning Glory: Preserving Historic Cemeteries; Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation / NCPTT, 2011.
- Guide to Developing a Preservation Maintenance Plan for a Historic Landscape; Margaret Coffin and Regina M. Bellavia; NPS Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation, 1998.
- Replacing Trees in Cultural Landscapes; Clippings; NPS Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation, undated.
- Landscape Characteristics (Landscape Lines #3); NPS Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation, undated.
- Historic Plant Material Sources (Landscape Lines #4); NPS Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation, undated.
- Tree Coring (Landscape Lines #8); NPS Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation, undated.
- Treatment of Plant Features (Landscape Lines #12); NPS Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation, undated.
- How to fell trees; The Conservation Volunteers; web page, undated.
- How to plant trees; The Conservation Volunteers; web page, undated.
- Laying hedges – the whys and wherefores of this ancient craft; The Conservation Volunteers; web page, undated.
- Protecting Cultural Landscapes: Planning, Treatment and Management of Historic Landscapes; Charles A. Birnbaum; US National Park Service Preservation Brief; web page, 1994.
- Guidelines for the Treatment of Cultural Landscapes (web page series); US National Park Service, undated.
- Biodiversity potential of burial places – a review on the flora and fauna of cemeteries and churchyards; Viktor Löki et al.; Global Ecology and Conservation, vol. 18; Elsevier, 2019.
- Cemetery types and the biodiversity of vascular plants – A case study from south-eastern Poland; Renata Nowińska, Aneta Czarna, and Maria Kozłowska; Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, vol. 49; Elsevier, 2020.
- Returning the Forest to Forest Lawn: Tree Planting Strategies for Historic Landscapes; NCPTT; YouTube, 2014.
- Preservation Maintenance of Turf Using Resource Sensitive Techniques in Historic Landscapes; NCPTT, YouTube. 2011.
- Cultural Landscape Video Series; NCPTT / NPS Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation, YouTube, 2019.
- Planting Boxwood Hedges in Historic Gardens; Jamie McGuane and Charlie Pepper; NCPTT / NPS Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation, YouTube, 2015.
- Trees: Storm Preparation and Recovery; Debbie Smith; NCPTT, YouTube, 2013.
- Replacing Trees in Historic Landscapes; Charlie Pepper; NCPTT / NPS Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation, YouTube, 2009.
- DIY French Drain: Cheap Yard Drainage Solution, Part 1; That Tech Teacher, YouTube, 2020.
- DIY French Drain: Cheap Yard Drainage Solution, Part 2; That Tech Teacher, YouTube, 2020.