References: Directional and Information Signage

Ця сторінка також доступна українською.


An information sign near the mass grave of Sambir-area Jews in the forest of Ralivka (Lviv oblast). Photo © RJH.

As noted in the guide section on signage on this website, there are no standards or laws applicable to heritage signs in western Ukraine which are currently in effect; the most relevant Ukrainian and European standards are listed and linked below, but caution should be used in applying these standards because many types of deviations are visible in the heritage signs erected in the region in the past decade and more. Absent specific rules and recommendations for signs which direct visitors to Jewish cemeteries and mass graves in the region, and inform both visitors and interested local people about the history of the sites, more general guidance can be sought from the fields of wayfinding, semiotics, and information theory. A few sources listed below are not closely related to signage for Jewish heritage sites, but are linked because they include interesting observations and ideas which could perhaps be adapted to good use in western Ukraine.

A few of the listed references are highlighted with brief summaries in the first section below, “key references”. Other useful resources on this subject may be found in the sections on regional and international experts, and on technical tools, methods, and data. Except where noted otherwise, all references listed here are in English.

Key References

Знаки дорожні: Загальні технічні умови; Правила застосування. (Road signs: General specifications; Rules of application.); ДСТУ 4100-2002 §33; Національний стандарт України, 2002. Free download available.
The Ukrainian national standard for the specification, design and construction of road signs, with application to all forms of signage intended to alert and direct vehicle drivers on highways and city streets. Although the standard includes no guidance for symbols and text specifically for heritage sites, the rules and examples for other forms of public facilities can be adapted for use in directing visitors to burial sites, and in identifying the sites once visitors arrive. See also this Wikipedia article.

Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals; United Nations Publication ECE/TRANS/196; 1968 (entered into force 1978).
An international convention on road signs with broad application in Europe. Although Ukraine is a signatory to this convention, its national standards conflict with these rules in many ways, leaving open questions about which rules to follow. The convention omits specific guidance on symbols and text for signs directing vehicle drivers to heritage sites, but the variety of specifications for other signs can be easily adapted. See also this Wikipedia article.

Graphical symbols — Public information symbols; ISO 7001; International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 2007.
A key international standard covering symbols on signs for public information. No symbols specified are applicable to burial sites or other heritage, but the large number of examples for other public sites and facilities give helpful guidance for the development of provisional symbols for Jewish heritage sites and for cemeteries.

Printed and Electronic Books

Journal Articles, Reports, and Web Pages